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attrib.c

/*
 *  R : A Computer Language for Statistical Data Analysis
 *  Copyright (C) 1995, 1996  Robert Gentleman and Ross Ihaka
 *  Copyright (C) 1997--2003  Robert Gentleman, Ross Ihaka and the
 *                            R Development Core Team
 *
 *  This program is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify
 *  it under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by
 *  the Free Software Foundation; either version 2 of the License, or
 *  (at your option) any later version.
 *
 *  This program is distributed in the hope that it will be useful,
 *  but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of
 *  MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.  See the
 *  GNU General Public License for more details.
 *
 *  You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License
 *  along with this program; if not, write to the Free Software
 *  Foundation, Inc., 59 Temple Place, Suite 330, Boston, MA  02111-1307  USA
 */

/* <UTF8> char here is handled as a whole string */

#ifdef HAVE_CONFIG_H
#include <config.h>
#endif

#include <Defn.h>
#include <Rmath.h>
#include <Rdefines.h>

static void checkNames(SEXP, SEXP);
static SEXP installAttrib(SEXP, SEXP, SEXP);
static SEXP removeAttrib(SEXP, SEXP);

SEXP comment(SEXP);
static SEXP commentgets(SEXP, SEXP);

static SEXP stripAttrib(SEXP tag, SEXP lst)
{
    if(lst == R_NilValue) return lst;
    if(tag == TAG(lst)) return stripAttrib(tag, CDR(lst));
    SETCDR(lst, stripAttrib(tag, CDR(lst)));
    return lst;
}

/* NOTE: For environments serialize.c calls this function to find if
   there is a class attribute in order to reconstruct the object bit
   if needed.  This means the function cannot use OBJECT(vec) == 0 to
   conclude that the class attribute is R_NilValue.  If you want to
   rewrite this function to use such a pre-test, be sure to adjust
   serialize.c accordingly.  LT */
SEXP getAttrib(SEXP vec, SEXP name)
{
    SEXP s;
    int len, i, any;

    /* pre-test to avoid expensive operations if clearly not needed -- LT */
    if (ATTRIB(vec) == R_NilValue &&
      ! (TYPEOF(vec) == LISTSXP || TYPEOF(vec) == LANGSXP))
      return R_NilValue;

    if (isString(name)) name = install(CHAR(STRING_ELT(name, 0)));

    if (name == R_NamesSymbol) {
      if(isVector(vec) || isList(vec) || isLanguage(vec)) {
          s = getAttrib(vec, R_DimSymbol);
          if(TYPEOF(s) == INTSXP && length(s) == 1) {
            s = getAttrib(vec, R_DimNamesSymbol);
                if(!isNull(s)) {
                    SET_NAMED(VECTOR_ELT(s, 0), 2);
                    return VECTOR_ELT(s, 0);
                }
          }
      }
      if (isList(vec) || isLanguage(vec)) {
          len = length(vec);
          PROTECT(s = allocVector(STRSXP, len));
          i = 0;
          any = 0;
          for ( ; vec != R_NilValue; vec = CDR(vec), i++) {
            if (TAG(vec) == R_NilValue)
                SET_STRING_ELT(s, i, R_BlankString);
            else if (isSymbol(TAG(vec))) {
                any = 1;
                SET_STRING_ELT(s, i, PRINTNAME(TAG(vec)));
            }
            else
                error(_("getAttrib: invalid type for TAG"));
          }
          UNPROTECT(1);
          if (any) {
            if (!isNull(s)) SET_NAMED(s, 2);
            return (s);
          }
          return R_NilValue;
      }
    }
    /* This is where the old/new list adjustment happens. */
    for (s = ATTRIB(vec); s != R_NilValue; s = CDR(s))
      if (TAG(s) == name) {
          if (name == R_DimNamesSymbol && TYPEOF(CAR(s)) == LISTSXP) {
            SEXP new, old;
            int i;
            new = allocVector(VECSXP, length(CAR(s)));
            old = CAR(s);
            i = 0;
            while (old != R_NilValue) {
                SET_VECTOR_ELT(new, i++, CAR(old));
                old = CDR(old);
            }
            SET_NAMED(new, 2);
            return new;
          }
          SET_NAMED(CAR(s), 2);
          return CAR(s);
      }
    return R_NilValue;
}

SEXP setAttrib(SEXP vec, SEXP name, SEXP val)
{
    if (isString(name))
      name = install(CHAR(STRING_ELT(name, 0)));
    if (val == R_NilValue)
      return removeAttrib(vec, name);

    if (vec == R_NilValue)
      error(_("attempt to set an attribute on NULL"));

    PROTECT(vec);
    PROTECT(name);
    if (NAMED(val)) val = duplicate(val);
    SET_NAMED(val, NAMED(val) | NAMED(vec));
    UNPROTECT(2);

    if (name == R_NamesSymbol)
      return namesgets(vec, val);
    else if (name == R_DimSymbol)
      return dimgets(vec, val);
    else if (name == R_DimNamesSymbol)
      return dimnamesgets(vec, val);
    else if (name == R_ClassSymbol)
      return classgets(vec, val);
    else if (name == R_TspSymbol)
      return tspgets(vec, val);
    else if (name == R_CommentSymbol)
      return commentgets(vec, val);
    else
      return installAttrib(vec, name, val);
}

/* This is called in the case of binary operations to copy */
/* most attributes from (one of) the input arguments to */
/* the output.    Note that the Dim and Names attributes */
/* should have been assigned elsewhere. */

void copyMostAttrib(SEXP inp, SEXP ans)
{
    SEXP s;
    PROTECT(ans);
    PROTECT(inp);
    for (s = ATTRIB(inp); s != R_NilValue; s = CDR(s)) {
      if ((TAG(s) != R_NamesSymbol) &&
          (TAG(s) != R_DimSymbol) &&
          (TAG(s) != R_DimNamesSymbol)) {
          installAttrib(ans, TAG(s), CAR(s));
      }
    }
    SET_OBJECT(ans, OBJECT(inp));
    UNPROTECT(2);
}

/* version that does not preserve ts information, for subsetting */
void copyMostAttribNoTs(SEXP inp, SEXP ans)
{
    SEXP s;
    PROTECT(ans);
    PROTECT(inp);
    for (s = ATTRIB(inp); s != R_NilValue; s = CDR(s)) {
      if ((TAG(s) != R_NamesSymbol) &&
          (TAG(s) != R_ClassSymbol) &&
          (TAG(s) != R_TspSymbol) &&
          (TAG(s) != R_DimSymbol) &&
          (TAG(s) != R_DimNamesSymbol)) {
          installAttrib(ans, TAG(s), CAR(s));
      } else if (TAG(s) == R_ClassSymbol) {
          SEXP cl = CAR(s);
          int i;
          Rboolean ists = FALSE;
          for (i = 0; i < LENGTH(cl); i++)
            if (strcmp(CHAR(STRING_ELT(cl, i)), "ts") == 0) {
                ists = TRUE;
                break;
            }
          if (!ists) installAttrib(ans, TAG(s), cl);
          else if(LENGTH(cl) <= 1) {
          } else {
            SEXP new_cl;
            int i, j, l = LENGTH(cl);
            PROTECT(new_cl = allocVector(STRSXP, l - 1));
            for (i = 0, j = 0; i < l; i++)
                if (strcmp(CHAR(STRING_ELT(cl, i)), "ts"))
                  SET_STRING_ELT(new_cl, j++, STRING_ELT(cl, i));
            installAttrib(ans, TAG(s), new_cl);
            UNPROTECT(1);
          }
      }
    }
    SET_OBJECT(ans, OBJECT(inp));
    UNPROTECT(2);
}

static SEXP installAttrib(SEXP vec, SEXP name, SEXP val)
{
    SEXP s, t;
    if (vec == R_NilValue)
      error(_("attempt to set an attribute on NULL"));
    PROTECT(vec);
    PROTECT(name);
    PROTECT(val);
    for (s = ATTRIB(vec); s != R_NilValue; s = CDR(s)) {
      if (TAG(s) == name) {
          SETCAR(s, val);
          UNPROTECT(3);
          return val;
      }
    }
    s = allocList(1);
    SETCAR(s, val);
    SET_TAG(s, name);
    if (ATTRIB(vec) == R_NilValue)
      SET_ATTRIB(vec, s);
    else {
      t = nthcdr(ATTRIB(vec), length(ATTRIB(vec)) - 1);
      SETCDR(t, s);
    }
    UNPROTECT(3);
    return val;
}

static SEXP removeAttrib(SEXP vec, SEXP name)
{
    SEXP t;
    if (name == R_NamesSymbol && isList(vec)) {
      for (t = vec; t != R_NilValue; t = CDR(t))
          SET_TAG(t, R_NilValue);
      return R_NilValue;
    }
    else {
      if (name == R_DimSymbol)
          SET_ATTRIB(vec, stripAttrib(R_DimNamesSymbol, ATTRIB(vec)));
      SET_ATTRIB(vec, stripAttrib(name, ATTRIB(vec)));
      if (name == R_ClassSymbol)
          SET_OBJECT(vec, 0);
    }
    return R_NilValue;
}

static void checkNames(SEXP x, SEXP s)
{
    if (isVector(x) || isList(x) || isLanguage(x)) {
      if (!isVector(s) && !isList(s))
          error(_("invalid type for 'names': must be vector"));
      if (length(x) != length(s))
          error(_("'names' attribute [%d] must be the same length as the vector [%d]"), length(s), length(x));
    }
    else error(_("names() applied to a non-vector"));
}


/* Time Series Parameters */

static void badtsp()
{
    error(_("invalid time series parameters specified"));
}

SEXP tspgets(SEXP vec, SEXP val)
{
    double start, end, frequency;
    int n;

    if (!isNumeric(val) || length(val) != 3)
      error(_("'tsp' attribute must be numeric of length three"));

    if (isReal(val)) {
      start = REAL(val)[0];
      end = REAL(val)[1];
      frequency = REAL(val)[2];
    }
    else {
      start = (INTEGER(val)[0] == NA_INTEGER) ?
          NA_REAL : INTEGER(val)[0];
      end = (INTEGER(val)[1] == NA_INTEGER) ?
          NA_REAL : INTEGER(val)[1];
      frequency = (INTEGER(val)[2] == NA_INTEGER) ?
          NA_REAL : INTEGER(val)[2];
    }
    if (frequency <= 0) badtsp();
    n = nrows(vec);
    if (n == 0) error(_("cannot assign 'tsp' to zero-length vector"));

    /* FIXME:  1.e-5 should rather be == option('ts.eps') !! */
    if (fabs(end - start - (n - 1)/frequency) > 1.e-5)
      badtsp();

    PROTECT(vec);
    val = allocVector(REALSXP, 3);
    PROTECT(val);
    REAL(val)[0] = start;
    REAL(val)[1] = end;
    REAL(val)[2] = frequency;
    installAttrib(vec, R_TspSymbol, val);
    UNPROTECT(2);
    return vec;
}

static SEXP commentgets(SEXP vec, SEXP comment)
{
    if (isNull(comment) || isString(comment)) {
      if (length(comment) <= 0) {
          SET_ATTRIB(vec, stripAttrib(R_CommentSymbol, ATTRIB(vec)));
      }
      else {
          installAttrib(vec, R_CommentSymbol, comment);
      }
      return R_NilValue;
    }
    error(_("attempt to set invalid 'comment' attribute"));
    return R_NilValue;/*- just for -Wall */
}

SEXP do_commentgets(SEXP call, SEXP op, SEXP args, SEXP env)
{
    checkArity(op, args);
    if (NAMED(CAR(args)) == 2) SETCAR(args, duplicate(CAR(args)));
    if (length(CADR(args)) == 0) SETCADR(args, R_NilValue);
    setAttrib(CAR(args), R_CommentSymbol, CADR(args));
    return CAR(args);
}

SEXP do_comment(SEXP call, SEXP op, SEXP args, SEXP env)
{
    checkArity(op, args);
    return getAttrib(CAR(args), R_CommentSymbol);
}

SEXP classgets(SEXP vec, SEXP class)
{
    if (isNull(class) || isString(class)) {
      if (length(class) <= 0) {
          SET_ATTRIB(vec, stripAttrib(R_ClassSymbol, ATTRIB(vec)));
          SET_OBJECT(vec, 0);
      }
      else {
          /* When data frames where a special data type */
          /* we had more exhaustive checks here.  Now that */
          /* use JMCs interpreted code, we don't need this */
          /* FIXME : The whole "classgets" may as well die. */
          installAttrib(vec, R_ClassSymbol, class);
          SET_OBJECT(vec, 1);
      }
      return R_NilValue;
    }
    error(_("attempt to set invalid 'class' attribute"));
    return R_NilValue;/*- just for -Wall */
}

SEXP do_classgets(SEXP call, SEXP op, SEXP args, SEXP env)
{
    checkArity(op, args);
    if (NAMED(CAR(args)) == 2) SETCAR(args, duplicate(CAR(args)));
    if (length(CADR(args)) == 0) SETCADR(args, R_NilValue);
    setAttrib(CAR(args), R_ClassSymbol, CADR(args));
    return CAR(args);
}

SEXP do_class(SEXP call, SEXP op, SEXP args, SEXP env)
{
    checkArity(op, args);
    return getAttrib(CAR(args), R_ClassSymbol);
}

/* character elements corresponding to the syntactic types in the
   grammar */
static SEXP lang2str(SEXP obj, SEXPTYPE t)
{
  SEXP symb = CAR(obj);
  static SEXP if_sym = 0, while_sym, for_sym, eq_sym, gets_sym,
    lpar_sym, lbrace_sym, call_sym;
  if(!if_sym) {
    /* initialize:  another place for a hash table */
    if_sym = install("if");
    while_sym = install("while");
    for_sym = install("for");
    eq_sym = install("=");
    gets_sym = install("<-");
    lpar_sym = install("(");
    lbrace_sym = install("{");
    call_sym = install("call");
  }
  if(isSymbol(symb)) {
    if(symb == if_sym || symb == for_sym || symb == while_sym ||
       symb == lpar_sym || symb == lbrace_sym ||
       symb == eq_sym || symb == gets_sym)
      return PRINTNAME(symb);
  }
  return PRINTNAME(call_sym);
}

/* the S4-style class: for dispatch  required to be a single string;
   for the newClass function, keeps S3-style multiple classes.

 */

SEXP R_data_class(SEXP obj, Rboolean singleString)
{
    SEXP class, value; int n;
    class = getAttrib(obj, R_ClassSymbol);
    n = length(class);
    if(n == 1 || (n > 0 && !singleString))
      return(class);
    if(n == 0) {
      SEXP dim; int n;
      dim = getAttrib(obj, R_DimSymbol);
      n = length(dim);
      if(n > 0) {
          if(n == 2)
            class = mkChar("matrix");
          else
            class = mkChar("array");
      }
      else {
        SEXPTYPE t = TYPEOF(obj);
        switch(t) {
        case CLOSXP: case SPECIALSXP: case BUILTINSXP:
          class = mkChar("function");
          break;
        case REALSXP:
          class = mkChar("numeric");
          break;
        case SYMSXP:
          class = mkChar("name");
          break;
        case LANGSXP:
          class = lang2str(obj, t);
          break;
        default:
          class = type2str(t);
        }
      }
    }
    else
      class = asChar(class);
    PROTECT(class);
    PROTECT(value = allocVector(STRSXP, 1));
    SET_STRING_ELT(value, 0, class);
    UNPROTECT(2);
    return value;
}

/* Version for S3-dispatch */
SEXP R_data_class2 (SEXP obj)
{
    SEXP class, class0 = R_NilValue, value, dim;
    SEXPTYPE t;
    int n;

    class = getAttrib(obj, R_ClassSymbol);
    n = length(class);
    if(n > 0) return(class);
    dim = getAttrib(obj, R_DimSymbol);
    n = length(dim);
    if(n > 0) {
      if(n == 2)
          class0 = mkChar("matrix");
      else
          class0 = mkChar("array");
    }
    PROTECT(class0);
    switch(t = TYPEOF(obj)) {
    case CLOSXP: case SPECIALSXP: case BUILTINSXP:
      class = mkChar("function");
      break;
    case INTSXP:
    case REALSXP:
      if(isNull(class0)) {
          PROTECT(value = allocVector(STRSXP, 2));
          SET_STRING_ELT(value, 0, type2str(t));
          SET_STRING_ELT(value, 1, mkChar("numeric"));
          UNPROTECT(2);
      }
      else {
          PROTECT(value = allocVector(STRSXP, 3));
          SET_STRING_ELT(value, 0, class0);     
          SET_STRING_ELT(value, 1, type2str(t));
          SET_STRING_ELT(value, 2, mkChar("numeric"));
          UNPROTECT(2);
      }
      return value;
      break;
    case SYMSXP:
      class = mkChar("name");
      break;
    case LANGSXP:
      class = lang2str(obj, t);
      break;
    default:
      class = type2str(t);
    }
    PROTECT(class);
    if(isNull(class0)) {
      PROTECT(value = allocVector(STRSXP, 1));
      SET_STRING_ELT(value, 0, class);
    } else {
      PROTECT(value = allocVector(STRSXP, 2));
      SET_STRING_ELT(value, 0, class0);   
      SET_STRING_ELT(value, 1, class);    
    }
    UNPROTECT(3);
    return value;
}

SEXP R_do_data_class(SEXP call, SEXP op, SEXP args, SEXP env)
{
  checkArity(op, args);
  return R_data_class(CAR(args), FALSE);
}

SEXP R_do_set_class(SEXP call, SEXP op, SEXP args, SEXP env)
{
  checkArity(op, args);
  return R_set_class(CAR(args), CADR(args), call);
}

/* names(object) <- name */
SEXP do_namesgets(SEXP call, SEXP op, SEXP args, SEXP env)
{
    checkArity(op, args);
    if (NAMED(CAR(args)) == 2)
        SETCAR(args, duplicate(CAR(args)));
    if (CADR(args) != R_NilValue) {
        PROTECT(call = allocList(2));
        SET_TYPEOF(call, LANGSXP);
        SETCAR(call, install("as.character"));
        SETCADR(call, CADR(args));
        SETCADR(args, eval(call, env));
        UNPROTECT(1);
    }
    setAttrib(CAR(args), R_NamesSymbol, CADR(args));
    return CAR(args);
}

SEXP namesgets(SEXP vec, SEXP val)
{
    int i;
    SEXP s, rval;

    PROTECT(vec);
    PROTECT(val);

    /* Ensure that the labels are indeed */
    /* a vector of character strings */

    if (isList(val)) {
      if (!isVectorizable(val))
          error(_("incompatible 'names' argument"));
      else {
          rval = allocVector(STRSXP, length(vec));
          PROTECT(rval);
          for (i = 0; i < length(vec); i++) {
            s = coerceVector(CAR(val), STRSXP);
            SET_STRING_ELT(rval, i, STRING_ELT(s, 0));
          }
          UNPROTECT(1);
          val = rval;
      }
    } else val = coerceVector(val, STRSXP);
    UNPROTECT(1);
    PROTECT(val);

    /* Check that the lengths and types are compatible */

    if (length(val) < length(vec)) {
      val = lengthgets(val, length(vec));
      UNPROTECT(1);
      PROTECT(val);
    }

    checkNames(vec, val);

    /* Special treatment for one dimensional arrays */

    if (isVector(vec) || isList(vec) || isLanguage(vec)) {
      s = getAttrib(vec, R_DimSymbol);
      if (TYPEOF(s) == INTSXP && length(s) == 1) {
          PROTECT(val = CONS(val, R_NilValue));
          setAttrib(vec, R_DimNamesSymbol, val);
          UNPROTECT(3);
          return vec;
      }
    }

    /* Cons-cell based objects */

    if (isList(vec) || isLanguage(vec)) {
      i=0;
      for (s = vec; s != R_NilValue; s = CDR(s), i++)
          if (STRING_ELT(val, i) != R_NilValue
            && STRING_ELT(val, i) != R_NaString
            && *CHAR(STRING_ELT(val, i)) != 0)
            SET_TAG(s, install(CHAR(STRING_ELT(val, i))));
          else
            SET_TAG(s, R_NilValue);
    }
    else if (isVector(vec))
      installAttrib(vec, R_NamesSymbol, val);
    else
      error(_("invalid type to set 'names' attribute"));
    UNPROTECT(2);
    return vec;
}

SEXP do_names(SEXP call, SEXP op, SEXP args, SEXP env)
{
    SEXP s;
    checkArity(op, args);
    s = CAR(args);
    if (isVector(s) || isList(s) || isLanguage(s))
      return getAttrib(s, R_NamesSymbol);
    return R_NilValue;
}

SEXP do_dimnamesgets(SEXP call, SEXP op, SEXP args, SEXP env)
{
    SEXP ans;
    if (DispatchOrEval(call, op, "dimnames<-", args, env, &ans, 0, 0))
      return(ans);
    PROTECT(args = ans);
    checkArity(op, args);
    if (NAMED(CAR(args)) > 1) SETCAR(args, duplicate(CAR(args)));
    setAttrib(CAR(args), R_DimNamesSymbol, CADR(args));
    UNPROTECT(1);
    return CAR(args);
}

static SEXP dimnamesgets1(SEXP val1)
{
    SEXP this2;
    
    if (LENGTH(val1) == 0) return R_NilValue;
    /* if (isObject(val1)) dispatch on as.character.foo, but we don't
       have the context at this point to do so */
    if (isFactor(val1)) { /* mimic as.character.factor */
      int i, n = LENGTH(val1);
      SEXP labels = getAttrib(val1, install("levels"));
      PROTECT(this2 = allocVector(STRSXP, n));
      for(i = 0; i < n; i++) {
          SET_STRING_ELT(this2, i, 
                     STRING_ELT(labels, INTEGER(val1)[i] - 1));
      }
      UNPROTECT(1);
      return this2;
    }
    if (!isString(val1)) { /* mimic as.character.default */
      PROTECT(this2 = coerceVector(val1, STRSXP));
      SET_ATTRIB(this2, R_NilValue);
      SET_OBJECT(this2, 0);
      UNPROTECT(1);
      return this2;
    }
    return val1;
}


SEXP dimnamesgets(SEXP vec, SEXP val)
{
    SEXP dims, top;
    int i, k;

    PROTECT(vec);
    PROTECT(val);

    if (!isArray(vec) && !isList(vec))
      error(_("'dimnames' applied to non-array"));
    /* This is probably overkill, but you never know; */
    /* there may be old pair-lists out there */
    if (!isPairList(val) && !isNewList(val))
      error(_("'dimnames' must be a list"));
    dims = getAttrib(vec, R_DimSymbol);
    if ((k = LENGTH(dims)) != length(val))
      error(_("length of 'dimnames' [%d] must match that of 'dims' [%d]"), 
            length(val), k);
    /* Old list to new list */
    if (isList(val)) {
      SEXP newval;
      newval = allocVector(VECSXP, k);
      for (i = 0; i < k; i++) {
          SET_VECTOR_ELT(newval, i, CAR(val));
          val = CDR(val);
      }
      UNPROTECT(1);
      PROTECT(val = newval);
    }
    for (i = 0; i < k; i++) {
      SEXP this = VECTOR_ELT(val, i);
      if (this != R_NilValue) {   
          if (!isVector(this))
            error(_("invalid type for 'dimnames' (must be a vector)"));
          if (INTEGER(dims)[i] != LENGTH(this) && LENGTH(this) != 0)
            error(_("length of 'dimnames' [%d] not equal to array extent"),
                  i+1);
          SET_VECTOR_ELT(val, i, dimnamesgets1(this));
      }
    }
    installAttrib(vec, R_DimNamesSymbol, val);
    if (isList(vec) && k == 1) {
      top = VECTOR_ELT(val, 0);
      i = 0;
      for (val = vec; !isNull(val); val = CDR(val))
          SET_TAG(val, install(CHAR(STRING_ELT(top, i++))));
    }
    UNPROTECT(2);
    return (vec);
}

SEXP do_dimnames(SEXP call, SEXP op, SEXP args, SEXP env)
{
    SEXP ans;
    if (DispatchOrEval(call, op, "dimnames", args, env, &ans, 0, 0))
      return(ans);
    PROTECT(args = ans);
    checkArity(op, args);
    ans = getAttrib(CAR(args), R_DimNamesSymbol);
    UNPROTECT(1);
    return ans;
}

SEXP do_dim(SEXP call, SEXP op, SEXP args, SEXP env)
{
    SEXP ans;
    if (DispatchOrEval(call, op, "dim", args, env, &ans, 0, 0))
      return(ans);
    PROTECT(args = ans);
    checkArity(op, args);
    ans = getAttrib(CAR(args), R_DimSymbol);
    UNPROTECT(1);
    return ans;
}

SEXP do_dimgets(SEXP call, SEXP op, SEXP args, SEXP env)
{
    SEXP ans;
    if (DispatchOrEval(call, op, "dim<-", args, env, &ans, 0, 0))
      return(ans);
    PROTECT(args = ans);
    checkArity(op, args);
    if (NAMED(CAR(args)) > 1) SETCAR(args, duplicate(CAR(args)));
    setAttrib(CAR(args), R_DimSymbol, CADR(args));
    setAttrib(CAR(args), R_NamesSymbol, R_NilValue);
    UNPROTECT(1);
    return CAR(args);
}

SEXP dimgets(SEXP vec, SEXP val)
{
    int len, ndim, i, total;
    PROTECT(vec);
    PROTECT(val);
    if (!isVector(vec) && !isList(vec))
      error(_("dim<- : invalid first argument"));

    if (!isVector(val) && !isList(val))
      error(_("dim<- : invalid second argument"));
    val = coerceVector(val, INTSXP);
    UNPROTECT(1);
    PROTECT(val);

    len = length(vec);
    ndim = length(val);
    if (ndim == 0)
      error(_("dim: length-0 dimension vector is invalid"));
    total = 1;
    for (i = 0; i < ndim; i++)
      total *= INTEGER(val)[i];
    if (total != len)
      error(_("dim<- : dims [product %d] do not match the length of object [%d]"), total, len);
    removeAttrib(vec, R_DimNamesSymbol);
    installAttrib(vec, R_DimSymbol, val);
    UNPROTECT(2);
    return vec;
}

SEXP do_attributes(SEXP call, SEXP op, SEXP args, SEXP env)
{
    SEXP attrs, names, namesattr, value;
    int nvalues;
    namesattr = R_NilValue;
    attrs = ATTRIB(CAR(args));
    nvalues = length(attrs);
    if (isList(CAR(args))) {
      namesattr = getAttrib(CAR(args), R_NamesSymbol);
      if (namesattr != R_NilValue)
          nvalues++;
    }
    /* FIXME */
    if (nvalues <= 0)
      return R_NilValue;
    /* FIXME */
    PROTECT(namesattr);
    PROTECT(value = allocVector(VECSXP, nvalues));
    PROTECT(names = allocVector(STRSXP, nvalues));
    nvalues = 0;
    if (namesattr != R_NilValue) {
      SET_VECTOR_ELT(value, nvalues, namesattr);
      SET_STRING_ELT(names, nvalues, PRINTNAME(R_NamesSymbol));
      nvalues++;
    }
    while (attrs != R_NilValue) {
      SET_VECTOR_ELT(value, nvalues, CAR(attrs));
      if (TAG(attrs) == R_NilValue)
          SET_STRING_ELT(names, nvalues, R_BlankString);
      else
          SET_STRING_ELT(names, nvalues, PRINTNAME(TAG(attrs)));
      attrs = CDR(attrs);
      nvalues++;
    }
    setAttrib(value, R_NamesSymbol, names);
    SET_NAMED(value, NAMED(CAR(args)));
    UNPROTECT(3);
    return value;
}

/* attributes(object) <- attrs */
SEXP do_attributesgets(SEXP call, SEXP op, SEXP args, SEXP env)
{
/* NOTE: The following code ensures that when an attribute list */
/* is attached to an object, that the "dim" attibute is always */
/* brought to the front of the list.  This ensures that when both */
/* "dim" and "dimnames" are set that the "dim" is attached first. */

    SEXP object, attrs, names;
    int i, nattrs;

    /* If there are multiple references to the object being mutated, */
    /* we must duplicate so that the other references are unchanged. */

    if (NAMED(CAR(args)) == 2)
      SETCAR(args, duplicate(CAR(args)));

    /* Extract the arguments from the argument list */

    object = CAR(args);
    attrs = CADR(args);
    if (object == R_NilValue) {
      if (attrs == R_NilValue)
          return R_NilValue;
      else
          PROTECT(object = allocVector(VECSXP, 0));
    }
    else PROTECT(object);

    if (!isNewList(attrs))
      errorcall(call, _("attributes must be in a list"));

    /* Empty the existing attribute list */

    /* FIXME: the code below treats pair-based structures */
    /* in a special way.  This can probably be dropped down */
    /* the road (users should never encounter pair-based lists). */
    /* Of course, if we want backward compatibility we can't */
    /* make the change. :-( */

    if (isList(object))
      setAttrib(object, R_NamesSymbol, R_NilValue);
    SET_ATTRIB(object, R_NilValue);
    SET_OBJECT(object, 0);

    /* We do two passes through the attributes; the first */
    /* finding and transferring "dim"s and the second */
    /* transferring the rest.  This is to ensure that */
    /* "dim" occurs in the attribute list before "dimnames". */

    nattrs = length(attrs);
    if (nattrs > 0) {
      names = getAttrib(attrs, R_NamesSymbol);
      if (names == R_NilValue)
          errorcall(call, _("attributes must be named"));
      for (i = 0; i < nattrs; i++) {
          if (STRING_ELT(names, i) == R_NilValue ||
            CHAR(STRING_ELT(names, i))[0] == '\0') {
            errorcall(call, _("all attributes must have names [%d does not]"), i+1);
          }
          if (!strcmp(CHAR(STRING_ELT(names, i)), "dim"))
            setAttrib(object, R_DimSymbol, VECTOR_ELT(attrs, i));
      }
      for (i = 0; i < nattrs; i++) {
          if (strcmp(CHAR(STRING_ELT(names, i)), "dim"))
            setAttrib(object, install(CHAR(STRING_ELT(names, i))),
                    VECTOR_ELT(attrs, i));
      }
    }
    UNPROTECT(1);
    return object;
}

/*  This code replaces an R function defined as

    attr <- function (x, which)
    {
        if (!is.character(which))
            stop("attribute name must be of mode character")
        if (length(which) != 1)
            stop("exactly one attribute name must be given")
        attributes(x)[[which]]
   }

The R functions was being called very often and replacing it by
something more efficient made a noticeable difference on several
benchmarks.  There is still some inefficiency since using getAttrib
means the attributes list will be searched twice, but this seems
fairly minor.  LT */

SEXP do_attr(SEXP call, SEXP op, SEXP args, SEXP env)
{
    SEXP s, t, tag = R_NilValue, alist;
    char *str;
    int n;
    enum { NONE, PARTIAL, PARTIAL2, FULL } match = NONE;

    s = CAR(args);
    t = CADR(args);

    if (!isString(t))
      error(_("attribute 'name' must be of mode character"));
    if (length(t) != 1)
      error(_("exactly one attribute 'name' must be given"));

    str = CHAR(STRING_ELT(t, 0));
    n = strlen(str);

    /* try to find a match among the attributes list */
    for (alist = ATTRIB(s); alist != R_NilValue; alist = CDR(alist)) {
      SEXP tmp = TAG(alist);
      if (! strncmp(CHAR(PRINTNAME(tmp)), str, n)) {
          if (strlen(CHAR(PRINTNAME(tmp))) == n) {
            tag = tmp;
            match = FULL;
            break;
          }
          else if (match == PARTIAL) {
            /* this match is partial and we already have a partial match,
               so the query is ambiguous and we return R_NilValue */
            match = PARTIAL2;
          } else {
            tag = tmp;
            match = PARTIAL;
          }
      }
    }
    if (match == PARTIAL2) return R_NilValue;

    /* unless a full match has been found, check for a "names" attribute */
    if (match != FULL && ! strncmp(CHAR(PRINTNAME(R_NamesSymbol)), str, n)) {
      if (strlen(CHAR(PRINTNAME(R_NamesSymbol))) == n) {
          /* we have a full match on "names" */
          tag = R_NamesSymbol;
          match = FULL;
      }
      else if (match == NONE) {
          /* no match on other attributes and a partial match on "names" */
          tag = R_NamesSymbol;
          match = PARTIAL;
      }
      else if (match == PARTIAL) {
          /* There is a partial match on "names" and on another
             attribute. If there really is a "names" attribute, then the
             query is ambiguous and we return R_NilValue.  If there is no
             "names" attribute, then the partially matched one, which is
             the current value of tag, can be used. */
          if (getAttrib(s, R_NamesSymbol) != R_NilValue)
            return R_NilValue;
      }
    }

    if (match == NONE)
      return R_NilValue;
    else
      return getAttrib(s, tag);
}

SEXP do_attrgets(SEXP call, SEXP op, SEXP args, SEXP env)
{
    /*  attr(obj, "<name>")  <-  value  */
    SEXP obj, name, value;

    obj = eval(CAR(args), env);
    if (NAMED(obj) == 2)
      PROTECT(obj = duplicate(obj));
    else
      PROTECT(obj);

    PROTECT(name = eval(CADR(args), env));
    if (!isValidString(name))
      errorcall(call, _("'name' must be non-null character"));

    /* no eval(.), RHS is already evaluated: */
    /* now it's a promise so we should eval it -RG- */
    PROTECT(value = eval(CADDR(args), env));
    setAttrib(obj, name, value);
    UNPROTECT(3);
    return obj;
}


/* These provide useful shortcuts which give access to */
/* the dimnames for matrices and arrays in a standard form. */

void GetMatrixDimnames(SEXP x, SEXP *rl, SEXP *cl, char **rn, char **cn)
{
    SEXP dimnames = getAttrib(x, R_DimNamesSymbol);
    SEXP nn;

    if (isNull(dimnames)) {
      *rl = R_NilValue;
      *cl = R_NilValue;
      *rn = NULL;
      *cn = NULL;
    }
    else {
      *rl = VECTOR_ELT(dimnames, 0);
      *cl = VECTOR_ELT(dimnames, 1);
      nn = getAttrib(dimnames, R_NamesSymbol);
        if (isNull(nn)) {
          *rn = NULL;
          *cn = NULL;
        }
      else {
          *rn = CHAR(STRING_ELT(nn, 0));
          *cn = CHAR(STRING_ELT(nn, 1));
        }
    }
}


SEXP GetArrayDimnames(SEXP x)
{
    return getAttrib(x, R_DimNamesSymbol);
}


/* the code to manage slots in formal classes. These are attributes,
   but without partial matching and enforcing legal slot names (it's
   an error to get a slot that doesn't exist. */


static SEXP pseudo_NULL = 0;

static SEXP s_dot_Data;
static SEXP s_getDataPart;
static SEXP s_setDataPart;

static void init_slot_handling() {
    s_dot_Data = install(".Data");
    s_getDataPart = install("getDataPart");
    s_setDataPart = install("setDataPart");
    /* create and preserve an object that is NOT R_NilValue, and is used
       to represent slots that are NULL (which an attribute can not
       be).  The point is not just to store NULL as a slot, but also to
       provide a check on invalid slot names (see get_slot below).

       The object has to be a symbol if we're going to check identity by
       just looking at referential equality. */
    pseudo_NULL = install("\001NULL\001");
}

static SEXP data_part(SEXP obj) {
    SEXP e, val;
    if(!s_getDataPart)
      init_slot_handling();
    PROTECT(e = allocVector(LANGSXP, 2));
    SETCAR(e, s_getDataPart);
    val = CDR(e);
    SETCAR(val, obj);
    val = eval(e, R_MethodsNamespace);
    UNPROTECT(1);
    return(val);
}

static SEXP set_data_part(SEXP obj,  SEXP rhs) {
    SEXP e, val;
    if(!s_setDataPart)
      init_slot_handling();
    PROTECT(e = allocVector(LANGSXP, 3));
    SETCAR(e, s_setDataPart);
    val = CDR(e);
    SETCAR(val, obj);
    val = CDR(val);
    SETCAR(val, rhs);
    val = eval(e, R_MethodsNamespace);
    UNPROTECT(1);
    return(val);
}

SEXP R_do_slot(SEXP obj, SEXP name) {
  /* Slots are stored as attributes to
     provide some back-compatibility
  */
    SEXP value = NULL; int nprotect = 0;
    if(!(isSymbol(name) || (isString(name) && LENGTH(name) == 1)))
      error(_("invalid type or length for slot name"));
    if(!s_dot_Data)
      init_slot_handling();
    if(isString(name)) name = install(CHAR(STRING_ELT(name, 0)));
    if(name == s_dot_Data)
      return data_part(obj);
    value = getAttrib(obj, name);
    if(value == R_NilValue) {
      SEXP input = name, classString;
      if(isSymbol(name) ) {
          input = PROTECT(allocVector(STRSXP, 1));  nprotect++;
          SET_STRING_ELT(input, 0, PRINTNAME(name));
          classString = GET_CLASS(obj);
          if(isNull(classString))
            error(_("cannot get a slot (\"%s\") from an object of type \"%s\""),
                  CHAR(asChar(input)), CHAR(type2str(TYPEOF(obj))));
      }
      else classString = R_NilValue; /* make sure it is initialized */
      /* not there.  But since even NULL really does get stored, this
         implies that there is no slot of this name.  Or somebody
         screwed up by using atttr(..) <- NULL */
      
      error(_("no slot of name \"%s\" for this object of class \"%s\""),
            CHAR(asChar(input)), CHAR(asChar(classString)));
    }
    else if(value == pseudo_NULL)
      value = R_NilValue;
    UNPROTECT(nprotect);
    return value;
}

SEXP R_do_slot_assign(SEXP obj, SEXP name, SEXP value) {
    PROTECT(obj); PROTECT(value);
                        /* Ensure that name is a symbol */
    if(isString(name) && LENGTH(name) == 1)
      name = install(CHAR(STRING_ELT(name, 0)));
    if(TYPEOF(name) == CHARSXP)
      name = install(CHAR(name));
    if(!isSymbol(name) ) 
      error(_("invalid type or length for slot name"));
                  
    if(!s_dot_Data)           /* initialize */
      init_slot_handling();

    if(name == s_dot_Data) {  /* special handling */
      obj = set_data_part(obj, value);
        UNPROTECT(2);
      return obj; 
    }
    if(isNull(value))         /* Slots, but not attributes, can be NULL.*/
      value = pseudo_NULL;    /* Store a special symbol instead. */ 
    
    setAttrib(obj, name, value);
    UNPROTECT(2);
    return obj;
}

SEXP R_pseudo_null() {
    if(pseudo_NULL == 0)
      init_slot_handling();
    return pseudo_NULL;
}


/* the @ operator, and its assignment form.  Processed much like $
   (see do_subset3) but without S3-style methods.
*/
#ifdef noSlotCheck
SEXP do_AT(SEXP call, SEXP op, SEXP args, SEXP env)
{
    SEXP  nlist, object, ans;
 
    nlist = CADR(args);
    PROTECT(object = eval(CAR(args), env));
    ans = R_do_slot(object, nlist);
    UNPROTECT(1);
    return ans;
}
#endif
 
#ifndef noSlotCheck

/* This does not get used anymore (commented out in the code below).
   Hence, comment out as well to make -Wall -pedantic happier.
   KH 2003-06-07.

static SEXP class_meta_data_env = NULL;
   
static int make_class_meta_data_env()
{
    class_meta_data_env = findVar(install("__ClassMetaData"), R_GlobalEnv);
    if(class_meta_data_env == R_UnboundValue) {
      class_meta_data_env = NULL;
      return 0;
    }
    else
      return 1;
}
*/

/* check for a class definition from the internal table -- will not get
 * classes whose definition has not been completed for this session,
 * so any code relying on this routine should call the S language
 * function comleteClassDefinition after a failed call. */
static Rboolean has_class_definition(SEXP class_name)
{
    /* In case we're called before initialization, try to find the
     * class metadata environment but don't insist on it. */
/*    if(class_meta_data_env || make_class_meta_data_env())
      return (findVarInFrame3(class_meta_data_env, class_name, FALSE) != R_UnboundValue);
      else */
      return FALSE;
}

SEXP do_AT(SEXP call, SEXP op, SEXP args, SEXP env)
{
    SEXP  nlist, object, ans, class;

    if(!isMethodsDispatchOn()) 
      error(_("formal classes cannot be used without the methods package"));
    nlist = CADR(args);
    /* Do some checks here -- repeated in R_do_slot, but on repeat the
     * test expression should kick out on the first element. */
    if(!(isSymbol(nlist) || (isString(nlist) && LENGTH(nlist) == 1)))
      error(_("invalid type or length for slot name"));
    if(isString(nlist)) nlist = install(CHAR(STRING_ELT(nlist, 0)));
    PROTECT(object = eval(CAR(args), env));
    /* do some testing here where we can give a better error message */
    class = getAttrib(object, R_ClassSymbol);
    if(length(class) == 1)
    {
      /* internal version of isClass().
      *  should eventually be able to grab class definition pointer
      from the object itself.  At least the code below usually only
      does the has_class_definition step (a single lookup); the
      findVar part is only in the case that the check will fail OR
      that the class definition has not yet been completed.*/
      char str[201]; SEXP class_name; Rboolean quick;
      snprintf(str, 200, ".__C__%s", CHAR(STRING_ELT(class, 0)));
      class_name = install(str);
      quick = has_class_definition(class_name);
      if(!quick &&
         (findVar(class_name, env) == R_UnboundValue))
          error(_("trying to get slot \"%s\" from an object whose class (\"%s\") is not defined "),
              CHAR(PRINTNAME(nlist)), CHAR(STRING_ELT(class, 0)));
    }
    else if(length(class) == 0)
          error(_("trying to get slot \"%s\" from an object of a basic class (\"%s\") with no slots"),
              CHAR(PRINTNAME(nlist)), CHAR(STRING_ELT(R_data_class(object, FALSE), 0)));
    else
          error(_("trying to get slot \"%s\" from an object with S3 class c(\"%s\", \"%s\", ...) (not a formally defined class)"),
              CHAR(PRINTNAME(nlist)), CHAR(STRING_ELT(class, 0)), 
              CHAR(STRING_ELT(class, 1)));
    ans = R_do_slot(object, nlist);
    UNPROTECT(1);
    return ans;
}

#endif

#if 0
/* Was a .Primitive implementation for @<-; no longer needed? */
SEXP do_AT_assign(SEXP call, SEXP op, SEXP args, SEXP env)
{
    SEXP nlist, object, ans, value;
    PROTECT(object = eval(CAR(args), env));
    nlist = CADR(args);
    if(!(isSymbol(nlist) || isString(nlist)))
      errorcall_return(call, _("invalid slot type"));
    /* The code for "$<-" claims that the RHS is already evaluated, but
       this is not quite right.  It can, at the least, be a promise
       for the "@" case. */
    value = eval(CADDR(args), env);
    ans = R_do_slot_assign(object, nlist, value);
    UNPROTECT(1);
    return ans;
}
#endif

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